United Systems of Sol Central

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The United Systems of Sol Central or SolGov is humanity's primary galactic governing body in 2563 CE. It consists of the organization's founding members in the Sol system as well as many colonies and a handful of corporations that have successfully been admitted into the union.

History

Sol Central was originally founded as the United Earth Government (UEG) under the Earth Declaration of Rights based off of the original charter for the old United Nations. The organization was originally intended to be a forum to discuss issues pertaining to humanity as a whole.

As mankind continued to expand further into the solar system and eventually frontier space, new colonial bodies were gradually admitted to the UEG via popular vote in the then-Council of Nations. Member states enjoyed free trade and travel throughout UEG space, humanitarian aid to developing stations or colonies as well as areas that had been struck by disaster, and, eventually, military protection from rising crime organizations in frontier space. Members were permitted to enforce their own laws within their borders provided they adhered to the Solar Declaration of Rights.

As the organization expanded, the Earth Declaration of Rights was put under review by the Council of Nations and was rewritten into the Galactic Declaration of Rights, revisions of which are still in effect in 2563.

During humanity's expansion period into interstellar space, the United Earth Government was eventually renamed to the United Systems of Sol Central, or simply Sol Central. Following these changes, the Council of Nations voted to reorganize into two primary governing bodies; the Solar Assembly (originally the Solar House of Representatives), and the Galactic Senate. Initially. Tau Ceti and Alpha Centauri were members of the original Solar Assembly Later, but as humanity's influence expanded, as did the demand for equal representation, the Colonial Assembly was created to tend to those needs.

The founding members of Sol Central, including Tau Ceti and Alpha Centauri, were granted permanent seats on the Solar Assembly, while other member states and some Corporations were each granted membership into the Colonial Assembly.

Structure

The United Systems of Sol Central are divided into three primary voting bodies, plus an executive branch, and judicial branch.

Executive

The executive power in the federal government is vested in the President of the United Systems, although power is often delegated to the Cabinet members and other officials. The President and Vice President are elected as running mates by the Electoral College, for which each member planet, including Earth its self, is allocated a number of seats based on its representation in the three assemblies of Congress. The President is limited to a maximum of two four-year terms. If the President has already served two years or more of a term to which some other person was elected, he may only serve one more additional four-year term.

President

The executive branch consists of the President and those to whom the President's powers are delegated. The President is both the head of state and government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. The President, according to the Sol Constitution, must see that laws are enforced and executed, and must preserve, protect and defend the Constitution's laws.

The President may sign legislation passed by Galactic Assembly of Congress into law, or may veto it, preventing it from becoming law unless at least two-thirds of two assemblies of Congress vote to override the veto. The President may unilaterally sign treaties with foreign powers. However, ratification of international treaties requires a two-thirds majority vote in the Galactic Senate. The President may be impeached by a majority in the House and removed from office by a two-thirds majority in the Senate for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". The President may not dissolve Congress or call special elections, but does have the power to pardon criminals convicted of offenses against the government (except in cases of impeachment), enact executive orders, and (with the consent of the Senate) appoint Supreme Court justices and federal judges.

Vice President

The Vice President is the second-highest official in rank of the federal government. The office of the Vice President's duties and powers are established in the legislative branch of the federal government. By virtue of this on-going role, he or she is the head of the Galactic Senate. In that capacity, the Vice President is allowed to vote in the Senate, but only when necessary to break a tie vote. The Vice President presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the ((Electoral College)). As first in the presidential line of succession, the Vice President becomes President upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. Lastly, the Vice President would become Acting President, assuming all of the powers and duties of President (except being designated as President) wherein the President is incapacitated or otherwise unable to perform his or her duties. Accordingly, by circumstances, the Constitution designates the Vice President as routinely in the legislative branch, or succeeding to the executive branch as President, or possibly being in both as Acting President. Because of circumstances, the overlapping nature of the duties and powers attributed to the office, the title of the office and other matters, such has generated a spirited scholarly dispute regarding attaching an exclusive branch designation to the office of Vice President.

Cabinet, executive departments, and agencies

The day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by the Galactic Assembly of Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the many departments, chosen by the President and approved with the "advice and consent" of the Galactic Senate, form a council of advisers generally known as the President's "Cabinet". Once confirmed, "cabinet officers" serve at the pleasure of the President. In addition to departments, a number of staff organizations are grouped into the Executive Office of the President. These include the Presidential Palace staff, the Galactic Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Office of the Sol Central Trade Representative, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The employees in these government agencies are called federal civil servants.

There are also independent agencies such as the Sol Central Postal Service, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Agency for Interstellar Development (AID). In addition, there are a handful of government-owned corporations.

Legislative

The Galactic Assembly of Congress is the legislative branch of the Sol Central federal government. It is tricameral system comprising the Solar Assembly, the Colonial Assembly, and the Galactic Senate.

The Solar Assembly

The Solar Assembly is a voting body of Sol Central that is tasked primarily with peacekeeping, security concerns, and well being of the Sol system. It consists of the planetary states and colonies present in the Sol system, which are the Mercurial Mandate, Second Venusian Union, the United Nations of Earth, the District of Luna, the Republic of Mars, the Autonomous Community of the Main Belt, the Commonwealth of Jovian Moons, the State of Titan, the State of Enceladus, and the Outer Worlds Collective (who represents all other minor colonies within Sol all the way out to Eris).

The Solar Assembly is the only voting body that can approve resolutions concerning galactic peacekeeping and security.

Tau Ceti and Alpha Centauri are also members of the Solar Assembly, despite not being a part of the Sol system its self. They are the only systems which have seats in the both Solar Assembly and the Colonial Assembly.

The Colonial Assembly

The Colonial Assembly is a voting body of Sol Central tasked with issues concerning humanity in all areas outside of Sol. As it is significantly larger than the Solar Assembly, the Colonial Assembly is often considered the primary deliberative body of Sol Central.

Membership on the Colonial Assembly is open to any extrasolar nation with a human population of more than 1,500,000 people. Unions of smaller nations are eligible to be granted one or more representatives on the assembly so long as the combined human population meets regular requirements. Corportations that are headquartered in the Sol system are also permitted to apply for membership to the assembly but do not follow the same rules for eligibility. Ineligible or unwilling nations or corporations may apply for and can be granted observer status on the assembly but are not permitted to vote on resolutions. The Free Trade Union is a notable observer of the Colonial Assembly that has not yet been granted voting powers due in part to its lack of centralized organization.

Tau Ceti and Alpha Centauri are also members of the Solar Assembly, despite not being a part of the Sol system its self. They are the only systems which have seats in the both Solar Assembly and the Colonial Assembly.

Galactic Senate

The Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population or location. There are currently 300 senators (two from each of the 150 worlds who are ratified members of United Systems of Sol Central), who each serve six-year terms. Approximately one third of the Senate stands for election every two years.

The Assemblies and the Senate each have particular exclusive powers. For example, the Senate must approve (give "advice and consent" to) many important Presidential appointments, including cabinet officers, federal judges (including nominees to the Supreme Court), department secretaries (heads of federal executive branch departments), military and naval officers, and ambassadors to foreign countries. All legislative bills for raising revenue must originate in the Assemblies. For any law to pass any legislation, it must be passed by either of the Assemblies, and then passed by the Senate. Only then may legislation become law by being signed by the President (or, if the President vetoes the bill, at least two houses of Congress may re-pass the bill, but by a two-thirds majority of each chamber, in which case the bill becomes law without the President's signature).

Judicial

ToDo

junk that isn't done because I stole it from wikipedia's page on the US government

Elections The powers of Congress are limited to those enumerated in the Constitution; all other powers are reserved to the states and the people. The Constitution also includes the "Necessary and Proper Clause", which grants Congress the power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers". Members of the House and Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana, and Georgia, which have runoffs.


The House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of representatives each state has in the House is based on each state's population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term. Each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. In order to be elected as a representative, an individual must be at least 25 years of age, must have been a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and must live in the state that he or she represents. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve. In addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. There is one delegate each from the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the resident commissioner from Puerto Rico.[5] Senate

Impeachment of federal officers

Congress has the power to remove the President, federal judges, and other federal officers from office. The House of Representatives and Senate have separate roles in this process. The House must first vote to "impeach" the official. Then, a trial is held in the Senate to decide whether the official should be removed from office. Although two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives (Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton), neither of them was removed following trial in the Senate. Congressional procedures

Article I, Section 2, paragraph 2 of the U.S. Constitution gives each chamber the power to "determine the rules of its proceedings". From this provision were created congressional committees, which do the work of drafting legislation and conducting congressional investigations into national matters. The 108th Congress (2003–2005) had 19 standing committees in the House and 17 in the Senate, plus four joint permanent committees with members from both houses overseeing the Library of Congress, printing, taxation and the economy. In addition, each house may name special, or select, committees to study specific problems. Today, much of the congressional workload is borne by subcommittees, of which there are some 150. Powers of Congress Main article: Article One of the United States Constitution The United States Capitol is the seat of government for Congress.

The Constitution grants numerous powers to Congress. Enumerated in Article I, Section 8, these include the powers to levy and collect taxes; to coin money and regulate its value; provide for punishment for counterfeiting; establish post offices and roads, issue patents, create federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court, combat piracies and felonies, declare war, raise and support armies, provide and maintain a navy, make rules for the regulation of land and naval forces, provide for, arm and discipline the militia, exercise exclusive legislation in the District of Columbia, and to make laws necessary to properly execute powers. Over the two centuries since the United States was formed, many disputes have arisen over the limits on the powers of the federal government. These disputes have often been the subject of lawsuits that have ultimately been decided by the United States Supreme Court. Congressional oversight Main article: Congressional oversight

Congressional oversight is intended to prevent waste and fraud, protect civil liberties and individual rights, ensure executive compliance with the law, gather information for making laws and educating the public, and evaluate executive performance.[6]

It applies to cabinet departments, executive agencies, regulatory commissions and the presidency.

Congress's oversight function takes many forms:

   Committee inquiries and hearings
   Formal consultations with and reports from the President
   Senate advice and consent for presidential nominations and for treaties
   House impeachment proceedings and subsequent Senate trials
   House and Senate proceedings under the 25th Amendment in the event that the President becomes disabled or the office of the Vice President falls vacant.
   Informal meetings between legislators and executive officials
   Congressional membership: each state is allocated a number of seats based on its representation (or ostensible representation, in the case of D.C.) in the House of Representatives. Each state is allocated two Senators regardless of its population. As of January 2010, the District of Columbia elects a non-voting representative to the House of Representatives along with American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands.

Committees

Both assemblies may vote to create a committee with a specific goal or purpose in order to meet the needs of Sol Central. In practice, the system of committees in place in Sol Central often acts as the organization's executive arm in its day-to-day operations. These committees are tasked with organizing the primary missions and operations of SolGov forces, including, but not limited to, providing aid to developing nations as well as providing protection in the form of peacekeeping and security operations in Sol Central space.

Committee members are elected as representatives from both assemblies and are typically re-elected every solar year. However, there is currently no sequential term limit on committee membership.

Citizenship

By the Galactic Declaration of Rights, any born human is given the right to claim citizenship with Sol Central. Citizenship within SolGov entitles one to the food and shelter provided by Sol Central's human welfare committee as well as free primary and secondary education.

Humans may claim the citizenship of either or both parents provided they were citizens of a Sol Central member nation. Individuals who hold citizenship with a Sol Central member may also be granted citizenship to Sol Central directly without renouncing citizenship from the member nation.

Contacts with Other Races

Sol Central often acts as the official representative government for humanity when negotiating with other races. However, there are also some races that Sol Central does not engage in diplomatic relations with for any number of reasons, including the Vox Shoal and the Kharmaan Ascent.

SolGov Embassy Complex

The embassy complex is a structure that was established by Sol Central in order to maintain contact with other space-faring races. It is currently located on the planet Mars outside of the main Sol Central government complex.

Structure

There are biodomes with radius of 0.5 km each. In the center of each biodome is the embassy building itself. The building's architecture and design corresponds with the culture of the embassy's inhabitant race. Around the embassy, filling the biosphere, is an environment artificially modified to resemble the natural environment of the race's planet to make it as comfortable as possible for inhabitants.

  • Skrell: The Skrellian embassy environment is humid, and there is also quite a large lake. The biodome if full of plants and trees from Querr'Balak. There are also a few exemplars of Neaerea, to make the biodome even closer to the real Qerr'balak. The embassy building sits on a low stilt.
  • Unathi: Just as their home planet Moghes, the Unathi biodome is hot, resembling desert, with sand on the ground. There is a little oasis located inside the dome. Also, there are a few bushes scattered in the sand. Like in the Skrellian biodome, the Unathi dome contains several Stok as well.
  • Tajaran: The Tajaran biodome is cold and contains artificially created snow. There is also a lake here, but it is usually frozen (although this can be changed whenever the inhabitants want). There are a lot of plants originating from Ahdomai, mostly Chur'eech. A number of Arnab are kept in the dome as pets to protect them; they are a endangered species.
  • Dionaea: Although they have no goverment, they like to learn about other cultures and also share their own. To fulfill this, there is another part of complex, which consists of two structures. First, the ground one, is a dome, like other embassies, just smaller. It doesn't contain the same stuff that other domes do (quantum communication relay, vault, services). There is only a small office, which however looks more like gallery than an office, since there are artifacts from both Dionaea and Humans as well as a small shuttle dock. The shuttle takes visitors to the other part of this "embassy", which is a small station-gestalt (combination of human space station with Dionaea gestalt), that can be used by Dionaea as both a cultural exchange center and also a place for their Diona-like doings.

Inside an Embassy

There are, of course, the ambassadors and their offices. Then there are facilities such as kitchen, vault (can be used as emergency room, where every inhabitant can escape to), entertainment areas, medical services (although it is recommended by Sol Central to call trained SolGov specialists in case of injury or health threat) and of course a little security force to make sure everything is in order. The core element of each embassy, accessible via the vault, is a room that is only accessible by the ambassadors. It is DNA locked to the species inhabiting it and also ID card and password locked; however, this access can be overridden by certain Sol Central officials in the case of an emergency. The room houses a large quantum communication relay, capable of sending and receiving gigabytes of data in short time. It is used to communicate directly with the central government of given civilization. On the opposite side of this room, there is a second, smaller, quantum communication relay, in case the main one breaks.

Military

o3o Gotta add something here at a later date. Otherwise just follow a link to its proper page. "USDF"